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रिसाई

दुख और मौत से संबंधित, शोकयुक्त

ज़र्फ़

बरतन; भाजन; पात्र

तिहाई

किसी वस्तु के तीन समान भागों में कोई एक भाग, तीसरा अंश, भाग या हिस्सा, तीसरा हिस्सा

ला'नत

धिक्कार, फटकार, भर्त्सना, अभिशाप, शाप

क़हर ढाना

किसी के लिए संकट पैदा करना, संकटग्रस्त बनाना, किसी पर कोई आफ़त लाना, ज़ुल्म करना, क़हर तोड़ना

मज़दूर

शारीरिक श्रम के द्वारा जीविका कमाने वाला कोई व्यक्ति, जैसे: इमारत बनाने, कल-कारख़ानों में काम करने वाला, श्रमिक, कर्मकार, भृतक, मजूर

चले न जाए आँगन टेढ़ा

काम में कुशल न होने पर दूसरे पर आरोप मढ़ना

आगे नाथ न पीछे पगा

जिसके आगे-पीछे कोई न हो, जिसका अपना कोई न हो, असहाय, लावारिस, अकेला

साहिर

जादूगर, वह व्यक्ति जो जादू दिखाता हो

कुड़माई

शादी के पूर्व रिश्ता पक्का करने के लिए की जाने वाली रस्म, सगाई, शादी तै करना, रिश्ता करना

नज़र-भर देखना

भरपूर नज़र से देखना, ग़ौर से देखना, ध्यान से देखना

ख़्वाजा-ताश

एक स्वामी के दास, जो आपस में ख्वाजःताश कहलाते हैं

मैया

कृपा, करुणा, तरस, ममता, दया

क़फ़स

(पक्षियों का) पिंजरा, कबूतरों का दरबा जो बाँस की खपच्चियों से बनाते हैं

हुस्न-ए-तलब

माँगने का अच्छा ढंग, कोई चीज़ इशारे इशारे में माँगना, ऐसे ढंग से चीज़ माँगना कि देने वाला देते हुए ख़ुशी महसूस करे

बसर

गुज़ारा, निर्वाह, जीवन-यापन, जीविका, निबाहना

बसर-औक़ात

जीवनानिर्वाह का अवलंब, जीवन का सहारा, जीविका साधन, आजीविका, वृत्ति, रोजी, रोजगार

मुंतशिर

बिखरा हुआ, छितरा हुआ, फैला हुआ, तितर-बितर, बिखरने वाला, फैलने वाला

पिनक

अफ़ीमची की वह अवस्था जिमसें वह नशे की अधिकता के कारण सिर झुकाकर बैठे रहने की दशा में बेसुध या सोया हुआ सा रहता है, अफ़ीम के नशे में ऊँघना, अफ़ीम के नशे में धुत्त, अफ़ीम की झोंक

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Home / Blog / In the Rhythm of Words: Arooz-Related Vocabulary

In the Rhythm of Words: Arooz-Related Vocabulary

by Atifa Haroon 26 January 2024 4 min Read

In the Rhythm of Words: Arooz-Related Vocabulary

Dear readers, let's embark on this blog journey with a glimpse into these enchanting couplets:

ze-haal-e-miskin makun taghaful durae nainan banae batiyan 
ki tab-e-hijran nadaram ai jaan na lehu kahe lagae chhatiyan 

yakayak az dil do chashm jadu ba-sad-farebam ba-burd taskin 
kise padi hai jo ja sunawe piyare pi ko hamari batiyan

Quite lyrical, isn't it? It's like these words effortlessly dance to a natural tune. However, this rhythmic flow is not just a random occurrence. It's an art crafted by humans, composed of elements that infuse Urdu poetry with a captivating rhythm.

Penned by Amir Khusrau, these couplets belong to the first-ever Ghazal written in Rekhta, an earlier name for the Urdu language and its poetry.

In this blog, we'll dive into the vocabulary of Arooz, an Urdu branch of knowledge dealing with what we call 'prosody' in English. We'll explore the placement and significance of these elements in Urdu poetry. So, let’s begin our voyage into learning the vocabulary of Arooz and add a ting of rhythm into our Urdu vocabulary!

First up, let us take a look at the forms of poetries in which Arooz or prosody is used. To the surprise of many, Urdu poetry is much more than just the popular Ghazals and Nazms

Qita comprises two couplets, consisting of four interconnected verses. Each line holds hands with the next, revealing a thought that unfolds gracefully, step by step.

Then there’s Masnawi. It is a lengthy narrative poem, exceeding the concise nature of a ghazal, with themes of religion, romance, or imparting moral lessons.

A Rubaii is a quatrain, which revolves around one single idea, unlike a ghazal. So, in essence, a Rubaii is self-sufficient in terms of being one whole idea put forth in 4 lines. 

Up next we have the Qasida, which is a form of poetry that celebrates a king, a noble figure, or a generous patron. It starts with two rhyming lines, like a ghazal, and repeats that rhyme in the second line of each following verse. It can go up to 50 lines in length.

A Marsiya is what one may call an ‘elegy’ in English. However, when it enters the sphere of Urdu poetry, it takes a more religious form. Marsiya is an elegy, a poetic expression of mourning, especially commemorating Imam Hussain's martyrdom at Karbala. 

Now that you’ve acquainted yourself with the forms of poetry, let us move forth to look at the components and elements that shape these poetic marvels. We shall understand them with reference to the couplets mentioned above.

First up we have two terminologies: Misra-e-uula and Misra-e-saani.
Uula is an Arabic word and means the first, in start or in beaning. So, Misra-e-uula is the first line of a couplet. Saani, also having roots in Arabic, means second, or two and refers to the second line of the couplet, known as called Misra-e-saani.

Our second word is a popular one, as many Urdu enthusiasts are familiar with it. The word ‘Qaafiya’ is used to define the rhyming words in a ghazal, or other poetic form. Words that rhyme with one another are called ‘hum-qaafiya’ alfaaz. For instance, ‘batiyan’ and ‘chhatiyan’ are hum-qaafiya words in this ghazal. 

Then we have the Beher, or the rhythmic structure of a sher or ghazal. In English, we call it the meter of a poem, or poetic form. When all the lines (misre) in a sher or ghazal have the same meter, it is said to be in a particular Bahr.

Radeef is used to refer to the repeated words in a couplet. Radeef finds most of its prominence in ghazals, where poets usually use the same word in both the lines of the first couplet. 

Though not directly related to Arooz, 'Takhallus' is a noteworthy addition to your Urdu poetry vocabulary. Takhallus, a lyrical entity in itself, is used to refer to the pen name or pseudonym used by poets in their literary works. 

And with that dear readers, we lift the pen from the captivating vocabulary related to Arooz in Urdu. We hope that you’ve learnt a thing or two and enhanced your knowledge of the world of Arooz.

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